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FotW's Gastronomic Vocabulary and Lexicon

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TasunkaWitko View Drop Down
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    Posted: 10 February 2012 at 10:26
This "sticky" thread will be where we keep track of terms that will be helpful for people all over the world. If anyone has a question on a term that is NOT on the list, please ask it here, and we will provide an answer!
We'll start with this list, which looks like a great resource from
Quote 1. Anglaise: French for "English Cream" is a light pouring custard used as a dessert cream or sauce. It is a mix of sugar, egg yolks and hot milk, often flavored with vanilla. The cream is made by whipping egg yolks and sugar together until the yolk is almost white, adding hot milk little by little, and cooking in a double boiler. The sauce is stirred with a spoon until it is thick enough to coat the back of the spoon, and then must be withdrawn from the heat. If the sauce reaches too high a temperature, it will curdle. Cooking temperature should be between 69C and 85C; the higher the temperature, the thicker the resulting cream.
2. Au Jus: Roasted meats, poultry or game served with their natural, unthickened juices.
3. Au sec: Cooked until nearly dry.
4. Clear Soups: Unthickened soup, including broths, consommés and broth-based soups.
5. Clearmeat: is a mix of the egg white protein albumen, ground meat, an acidic product, mirepoix and other ingredients; it's used to clarify a broth.
6. Consommé: A rich stock or broth that has been clarified with clearmeat to remove impurities.
7. Cream Soup: A soup made from vegetables cooked in a liquid that is thickened with a starch and pureed; cream is then incorporated to ad richness and flavor.
8. Deglaze: To swirl or stir a liquid (usually wine or stock) in a pan to dissolve cooked food particles remaining on the bottom or "fond"; the resulting mixture often becomes the base for a sauce.
9. Emulsion: A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids; it is often temporary (for example, oil in water)
10. Fond: (1) French for "stock" or "base"; (2) The concentrated juices, drippings and bits of food left in pans after foods are roasted or sautéed; it is used to flavor sauces made directly in the pans in which foods were cooked.
11. Fond lie: Also know as Jus lie; a sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or similar starch; often used like a demi-glace, especially to produce small sauces.
12. Glace de Viande: A dark, syrupy meat glaze made by reducing a brown stock.
13. Gumbo: An American stew or hearty soup featuring in Creole and Cajun cooking. A stew of mixed ingredients, including vegetables, okra in particular, with onions, peppers, tomatoes and garlic. Fish, crab, oysters, poultry, meat and/or spice sausage may be added. The okra acts as a thickening agent (okra is also known as Gumbo in West Africa) but is not the essential ingredient in all recipes for Gumbo. File powder, made from sassafras leaves, may be added as well as or instead of okra to thicken and flavor gumbo.
14. Hollandaise: An emulsified sauce made of butter, egg yolks and flavorings (especially lemon juice).
15. Jus: This French word is roughly equivalent to "juice", but has more specific meanings in French cookery than the English word. It is used primarily for the gravy of a roast, made by diluting the pan juices with water, clear stock or any other suitable liquid, and then boiling it until all the goodness in the pan has been absorbed into the stock. Dishes described as au jus are prepared or served with this gravy. It is also used for a thickened or clear brown stock, especially veal stock (jus de veau). Finally, it is used for the juice squeezed from raw vegetables or fruit.
16. Jus lie: Also know as Fond lie; a sauce made by thickening brown stock with cornstarch or similar starch; often used like a demi-glace, especially to produce small sauces
17. Liaison: A mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream used to thicken and enrich sauces.
18. Mayonnaise: A thick, creamy sauce consisting of oil and vinegar emulsified with egg yolks, usually used as a salad dressing.
19. Monter au Beurre: To finish a sauce by swirling or whisking in butter (raw or compound) until it is melted; used to give sauces shine, flavor and richness.
20. Pan Gravy: A sauce made by deglazing pan drippings from roast meat or poultry and combining them with a roux or other starch and stock.
21. Pureed Soup: A soup usually made from starchy vegetables or legumes; after the main ingredient is simmered in a liquid, the mixture, or a portion of it, is pureed.
22. Raft: A crust formed during the process of clarifying consommé; it is composed of the clearmeat and impurities from the stock, which rise to the top of the simmering stock and release additional flavors.
23. Reduction: Cooking a liquid such as a sauce until its quantity decreases through evaporation. To reduce by one-half means that one-half of the original amounts remains. To reduce by three-fourths means that only one-fourth of the original amount remains. To reduce au sec means that the liquid is cooked until nearly dry.
24. Sauce Béchamel: A leading sauce made by thickening milk with a white roux and adding seasonings.
25. Sauce Espagnole: Also known as brown sauce, a leading sauce made of brown stock, mirepoix and tomatoes thickened with brown roux; often used to produce demi-glace.
26. Saucier: (Sauté Station Chef) who holds one of the most demanding jobs in the kitchen is responsible for all sautéed items and most sauces.
27. Sec: French word for "dry" and when used to describe still wines, indicates that the wine has little if any residual sugar left after fermentation, meaning the wine is dry (not sweet). In sparkling wines such as champagne, however, the word takes on quite another meaning "sec" indicates a relatively sweet wine (demi-sec even sweeter), while the driest sparkling wines are referred to as Brut.
28. Supreme: An intermediary sauce made by adding cream to chicken velouté.
29. Thick Soups: Include cream soups and puree soups. Most soups can be classified by cooking technique and appearance as either clear or thick.
30. Tomato Sauce: A leading sauce made from tomatoes, vegetables, seasonings and white stock; it may or may not be thickened with roux.
31. Velouté: A leading sauce made by thickening a white stock (fish, veal, or chicken) with roux.
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Margi Cintrano View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Margi Cintrano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 14 March 2012 at 09:14
This is very informative and a great asset for learning and / or clarifying terms used in gastronomy on a daily basis.
I shall post my Gastronomic Vocabulary from now on here. I think it gets lost in the country sections where the recipes are --- it is too important and needs a section of its own.
Kindest. Margaux
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Mediterranean Gastronomic Vocabulary - March 13th, 2012
Written by: Margaux Cintrano
Mato: a dessert inspired by Salvador Dalí called Mel i Mató, fresh goat´s milk fresh cheese similar to a ricotta with honey and is served on the northeast coast of Costa Brava, Girona, Catalonia on the Iberian Peninsula. The ingredients include: sugar, water, honey, rasberries and goat´s milk fresh cheese or home made ricotta style cheese.
Coca: This is a traditional Mallorca Island, based Pizza without cheese. The name derives from the Latin verb Coquere, which means to cook. Shaped in long oval and / or rectangles, these pizzas are baked in wood burning ovens. The toppings are vegetables.
Herbes de Maquis:  The island of Corisca was ruled by Italy for centuries yet today it is a French Island. However, its regional cuisines, are dominated by the sea. The parts of the gorgeous island of Corsica, France, that are not cultivated or forested are covered with a thick underbrush called the Maquis. It consists of a diverse quantity of aromatic herbs that make the hillsides white with tiny flowers in the spring. A blend of herbs is a common flavouring for the many shellfish and seafood dishes served here. The herbs include: oregano, thyme, mint, rosemary and basil. These herbs are paired with: Italian style tomatoes, live lobsters, shallot, garlic, red wine viengar, cayenne and cream in a famous dish called Lobster, Tomatoes & Herbes de Maquis.
Genovese Pesto: Basil hails from Ligueria, which hugs the northwestern coast of Italia,  and there is no place in the world where it is more aromatic or more scrumptuous. It has been the base of the renowned Genovese Basil Pesto for centuries. The ingredients are:  1 cup packed basil leaves, 1/2 cup extra virgin olive oil, 6 tblsps of a not to cured pecorino sardo ewe cheese or Reggiano Parmesano cow cheese and 1/4 cup of pinenuts and 1 1/2 tsps. of minced garlic.  
Neapolitan Biscotti: These not too sweet cookies are based on traditional recipes seldom seem these days. The ingredients are: whole almonds, flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, ground cinammon, honey, eggs, grated orange peel and vegetable oil. They are a specialy in Ischia Porto, Napoli, Italy which is a small island across from the bay of Naples on the south west coast. Famed for their tarts, pastries, cakes, babas, biscotti, macaroons, cinammon fritters similar to: Churros, a fried dough breakfast fritter in Spain and gelati ( icecream). 
Aubergine in French and British English ( USA English is Eggplant, In Italian, melanzane, and in Spanish, Berenjena ). The Moorish brought eggplant to Sicily in the late 10th century and as a matter of fact, the Italians called aubergine ARABICA or Arab Root. It is the quintessential ingredient in Sicilian Island Cuisine often called Norma on restaurant cartes. Prepared roasted, fried, in Caponata, a Sicilian relish made with olives and tomatoes and in numerous pastas for example layered in earthenware casseroles like a lasagne with Bolognese Sauce and Bechamel white sauce  in addition to 1.000 other uncountable ways.   
Orecchiette in Apulian dialect  and Recchietelle in Italian and In English: Little Ear Pasta: In Puglia, women still make pasta at home and their favorite shape is little ears. Called Recchie for short, is eaten almost daily however it is prepared in over 365 whimiscal recipes. It is very typical in southeastern Italy on the heel of the nation on the Adriatic Sea, to prepare Little Ears with Broccoli Rabe, grated Pecorino Sardo, olive oil and garlic. Very simple and straight forward.
Palacsinta:  This traditional Hungarian dessert is a vestige of Austro Hungarian occupation in Italia and is still popular in the Port of Trieste on the Adriatic in northeast Italia near Slovenia. In France, it is called Crêpe Suzette.  It later had become introduced to France via the Adriatic. The dessert is prepared with following: club soda, eggs, milk, dark rum, vanilla extract, butter, grated lemon and orange peel, cherries, flour, vegetable oil and sugar.
Pastitsatha: This dish hails from Corfu, Greece and for many years, during their invasions, they have learnt to rely on little scant meat products and this the recipe consists of the following ingredients: chicken braised, aromatic tomato sauce, allspice, cumin, smoked paprika, nutmeg, cloves, cayenne, red wine vinegar, cayenne, Perciatelli Pasta and Parmesano. The Ionian Island of Corfu, is located via Ferry 55 km from the Bari Port, Puglia, Italy. Nowhere is it more visible to see such a blend of multi ethnicity. The cooks in Corfu are profoundly influenced by the Italians, and garlic, smoked paprika, spicy tomato sauces and local fish varieties and squid are high on the list of deliciousness and Meze, small appetiser size plates, similar to Tapas in Spain.
The Greek National Dish is Moussaka: which is a luscious lamb and eggplant baked casserole is known the world over. Mousakka in recent times, is made with beef verses lamb. The other ingredients employed are: olive oil extra virgin, ground lamb or ground beef, dry red wine, nutmeg, dried currants, cayenne, onion, tomatoes, eggplant, potato, eggs, Greek Yogurt and salt and pepper, rosemary and thyme.  The most famous restaurants serving moussaka are located in   Port of Nafplion, Peloponnese.   
Grape Leaves ( Dolmades ): The Greeks have been wrapping food since antiquity. Greece another grape producing country, having a lush harvest of grape leaves, has become renowned for their tasty morsels of currant, lemon, pine nut, olive oil and rice stuffing. Each tavern, restaurant and family have their own fillings, including: shrimp with dill, garlic, parsley and scented fragrant rice.
Lamb Böreckler: From the lovely Port of Kudasi, Turkey, once a sleepy fishermen´s village, now a coastal playground, savoury pastries called Böreckler are some of the oldest and most important recipes in traditional Turkisk regional cuisine. This Phyllo dough pastry known in Turkish as a Yufka, is wrapped around meat or vegetable fillings and can be served as an appetiser or meze or lunch starter. The traditional filling is made from: butter, onion, dried thyme, ground lamb, chopped parsley and olive oil.
Almond Tarator: Tarator, a creamy almond and garlic blend is one of Turkey´s most ancient and popular sauces. Originating in almond producing Port of Antalaya, home to some of the most lovely desserts in the Mediterranean. This sauce is often paired with seabass or other white firm fish. The recipe is: 1/2 cup flour, 1/2 tsp. smoked paprika, 1/4 tsp. dried crushed red pepper, 4 sea bass fillets, and 1/4 cup olive oil. For the Almond Tarator:  1 cup slithered almonds, 1/ 4 cup breadcrumbs, 2 garlic cloves, 3 tblps. fresh lemon juice. This is an absolutely delightful light flavorful lunch with a lovely white wine, from Greece, designation of origin: Santorini.
Designation of Origin, Denomination of Origin or Appellation: is where a wine comes from, or a food product or raw material hails from and is cultivated. Spain alone has over 71 wine Designation of Origins. The Mediterranean is a sea of wine, possessing the soil, micro climate and know how to produce successful wines.   
Nightingale Nests:  Antalya is renowned for its oranges. The orange blossoms are distilled into a lovely fragrant flower water. This perfumed liquid is a syrup that is drizzled over the Nightengales, a Phyllo nut filled spiral pastry. The syrup is made from: lemon juice, orange flower water, sugar and the fillings contain: sugar, blanched almonds, pistachios, butter and of course the Phyllo.
Couscoussier: a triple decker steamer created exclusively for the making of cous cous. The bottom holds a spicy broth ( fish or chicken ), the middle layer is the fish or chicken with vegetables and  the top contains the semolina grains which make the cous cous.
Farka:  this is an interesting dessert or dessert which hails from Port of Call Hammamet, Tunis. It is a sweetened semolina dessert like cous cous, however, the ingredients are as follows:  cous cous, water, sugar, oil, chopped toasted nuts: walnuts. pistachios, hazelnuts, dates and hot milk. It has been traditionally served to children, however, adults have developed a penchant for it as well.
Warka:  Dating back to the  times of the occupation by the Ottoman Turks in Morocco, these thin semolina pancakes had been used for savoury pies with feathered game called B´Stilla and was a very worthy contribution to the Briuats, a Moroccan popular sweet or savoury Moroccan pastry which are made in Port Cabo Negro. 
Tagine: In Morocco ( Tangier ), the word Tagine denotes an earthenware oven clay dish with a conical lid that is a vessel in which chicken or fish  or lamb stews are slow cooked prepared. However, the name Tagine has also been given to the dish itself. Traditionally lamb tagine is made with dates, one of the country´s largest crops, cumin, parsley, cinammon, ginger, almonds, honey, saffron and fish tagine is made with cilantro, saffron, preserved lemons, onion, olives, tomato, green, yellow gold and red bell pepper. Tajine, on the other hand is a Berber word for Tagine in Moroccan Arabic. 
Hand painted patterned servingware with a conical cover to keep the food warm on the table once it is cooked and served. Chicken tagine is prepared with lemons, cumin, cilantro and a combination of olives and vegetables at low temperatures and slow cooked.
Some of the renowned dishes served in a tagine or tajine are:
1) Mqualli - slow cooked chicken with citrus and olives
2) Mrouzia - slow cooked lamb with almonds and raisins
Tunisian Tagine:
Tunis tajine is very distinctly different from Moroccan. The word tagine in Tunis refers to a Frittata, similar to an Italian Frittata however, stuffed with rose buds, mint leaf, saffron, meat and spices.
Paella: Over two centuries ago, rice field workers in Valencia, Levante on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, had begun to cook in a flat, two handled metal pan known as a pallera and so, paella was born. This rice dish has as many recipes as pasta. There are Government Tourism Ministry Competitions throughout the Valencia, Alicante, Murcia, Almeria, Costa Brava, Tarragon, Barcelona and Castellón Provinces. There is the Mountain style and the shellfish - seafood variety. There is the Rice called Arroz Bomba, a dry arborio served in two parts and the Bouilabaisse style, Caldoso and the Valencian urban style, the Fideus or Vermicillo noodle type of Barcelona and Girona, Catalonia. The key ingredients: saffron, short grain rice, olive oil, salt, fish, shellfish or seafood, in addition to red pepper, olives, turmeic and sausage or chicken. Then, for a mountain style, beans, feathered game and chicken or rabbit.    
Insalata Mista: This salad translates to Mixed Salad which in Italia, normally consists of Radicchio and / or, Arugula, tomato and fennel bulb, vinegar and olive oil with a drizzle of lemon. Sometimes scallion is chopped finely with a sprinkle of pecorino or reggiano parmesano.

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Margi Cintrano View Drop Down
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Margi Cintrano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 15 March 2012 at 02:43
The Italian Ministry of Tourism and Agricultural ´s Formal Designation of Origin Recipe is:  
Besciamella´s ( bechamel ) translates to White Sauce:
For a serving of Lasagne Bolognese for 8 people:
5 tblsps unsalted butter
1/4 cup all purpose flour 
3 cups whole milk
1 1/2 tsps salt
1/2 tsp freshly grated nutmeg
Melt butter in a 3 quart heavy saucepan. Add milk 1 cup at a time to the butter mixture, whisking constantly until very smooth. Whisk in flour until smooth. Whisk frequently until the pale golden deep tan color consumes product, 6 minutes.
Meanwhile heat milk in a separate saucepan 1 1/2 qt.
Whisk for 30 seconds and remove from heat and whisk again, and add salt and nutmeg.
Cover with a buttered round of wax paper and cool to room temperature.
Let Besciamella cool.
Margaux Cintrano.
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