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Three Families, Two Hogs

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TasunkaWitko View Drop Down
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    Posted: 31 October 2017 at 13:35
I recently read (for probably the ninth or tenth time) Poland, by James Michener. It's a great novel, and one that I will probably read three or four more times before I die. For those with any interest in the history of the region, I highly recommend it.

One reason (among many) that I enjoy Michener's books so much is that his research goes deep and covers a wide span; this has amazing results in that - even though a book will be fiction - it is written so well that the story could almost flawlessly fit right in with the history of the country or region involved. Because of this, Michener's research and subsequent stories often include detailed references to the cuisine and foodways of a given region at a given time in history. This book includes several such accounts, but one in particular stuck me as significant to the point where I felt compelled to share it.

In order to do so effectively, I need to give you just a bit of background. It's not necessary to get into too much detail, but some explanation is required for context.

In the 1600s, when this excerpt takes place, Poland had a relatively unique form of government. Kings were almost always foreigners elected by a group of established landowners that were called magnates. They were not nobility, per say; but for all practical purposes, they had similar power and influence. They would have land holdings that were very sizable, often stretching into Ukraine, Lithuania and other far-flung areas.

Further down the hierarchy, the magnates had vassals within the gentry that could be called petty knights or henchmen. These men often had good land - including villages - through the grace of the magnates, to whom they would owe allegiance. They also had very good, very honorable names and reputations, with an accompanying culture of chivalry. At the same time, however, they were usually quite poor, with few resources and almost no money of their own; a petty knight with more than 4 horses was doing very well for himself.

Toward the bottom, of course, were the peasants; essentially, they were slaves of the higher classes, tied to the land, as ever, with very few rights and almost nothing to look forward to, except a festival or holiday, now and then. This is not to say that they were mistreated or abused, because they usually were not; however, the higher classes held the attitude that they knew what was best for the peasants, and rarely - if ever - consulted the peasants on anything that could (and usually did) have significant impact on their own lives.

In this portion of the story, a magnate named Cyprjan of Gorka is preparing for the wedding of his daughter to the son of another magnate. This wedding will take place in the village of Bukowo, which is in the fief of a knight named Lukasz Bukowski, who is a vassal of Cyprijan. Let's see how the preparations are going:

Quote The excitement at Castle Gorka was so intense that Magnate Cyprjan ordered not one but two hogs to be slaughtered, but when the carcasses were hung and he had inspected them he realized that he had more meat than the banquet would need, and in a fit of generosity inspired by the good fortune his daughter was having, he sent for his henchman Lukasz of the little castle at Bukowo. When that petty knight appeared, Cyprjan actually embraced him, which surprised Lukasz exceedingly, for magnates did not customarily embrace their minor gentry.

“Lukasz, I am so pleased this day that I’ve ordered the butcher to cut away the forequarters of the two hogs for you and Danusia. Make a feast of it in my daughter’s honor.” When Lukasz bowed, obviously delighted with this unexpected gift of meat, for in his meager quarters this was not often seen, the magnate clapped him on the shoulder, an unheard-of gesture of approval, and said: “Of course, we shall expect you and Danusia at the banquet,” and at this vote of confidence Lukasz bowed once more, caught his lord’s hand and kissed it.

Then, in a further burst of generosity, Cyprjan said: “And I want you to give the haslet, all of it, to this fellow they call Jan of the Beech Trees. He was most helpful during our last hunt.”

So the butcher made two packages, one of the lean but tasty forequarters for Lukasz, another of haslet for the peasant Jan, and the lord of Bukowo, as petty a one as lived in all of Poland, rode home with his meat and a sense that he had been honored....


More to come; but that's enough to digest, for now....

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TasunkaWitko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01 November 2017 at 08:14
Okay, so the hogs have been butchered, and the various portions delivered - but exactly what cuts were those, and what became of them? More importantly, how did the resources and experiences of each recipient affect the way that the various cuts were prepared, and what were the methods used?

Let's take a look at what the Magnate's wife, Zofia, did with her portion; then, we can perhaps answer some of these questions:

Quote The rich major quarters of the hogs were delivered to the castle kitchens, where an extraordinary woman took charge of them....

Zofia...accepted the hog meat when it reached the kitchen: many chatelaines never saw their kitchens, but Zofia enjoyed not only the hurly-burly of an active cooking place but also the creative things that could be done there, and now she was ready to ensure that the pork would be properly presented to the guests.

She had six cooks, two of whom doubled as waiters, and her instructions were specific: “I want the large cuts to be properly roasted, the heavy skin cut into diamond shapes and studded with caraway, the excess fat to be trimmed away but saved for larding. I want the roast to be seasoned with marjoram and a touch of mace, and as it stands over a slow fire, basted every fifteen minutes with a goose feather dipped one time in butter, the next in beer, the last two times with melted sugar. It must be brought to the table in as large pieces as possible, so that all can see the glazing. And I want to supervise the carving myself, because the knife must cut across the grain, so that the chewing is made easy for those with poor teeth.”

It was not difficult to prepare a good roast if instructions were followed, but it required a touch of patient genius to handle the lesser cuts of pork, and since these often proved to be the tastiest, Zofia wanted her cooks to follow the ancient recipes developed by the Mniszechs: “I want the meat to be cut flat, and not lumpy. It is to be well pounded until tender and uniform. Rub it well with garlic and oil, spread it with a generous mixture of onions, sauerkraut and diced apple. Roll it handsomely and tie it with a cord. You know how to watch it while it bakes, basting it with beer and butter. “

I want it served with the best Krakow kasha you have ever made. Soak the kasha in light vinegar, then roast it until each grain is brown and separate and very dry. Then prepare a sauce of eggs and beer and scalded raisins and blanched almonds cut fine, and I want it seasoned as before with pepper and nutmeg and marjoram. Do not stint on the raisins and almonds, for I want each grain of kasha to have its own accompaniment. And you are to serve this great bowl of kasha with eight Easter eggs, brightly colored, around the edges....”

(Later)

[As dinner was being served,] Zofia interrupted to announce: “You must choose, roast of pork done in the French style, or roll of pork done Polish style with roasted kasha....”


We'll see if we can sort this one out, and then move on to the household of the petty knight, Lukasz Bukowski....
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Tom Kurth Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 01 November 2017 at 17:53
Many years gone now that I read book after book by Michener. (My favorites were "Centennial", "Chesapeake", and "Caravans" if I remember that title right.) Pardon the intrusion of politics here, but what I most remember from "Poland" is the development of the Polish Senate, the Syme, I think it was called. Each of the nobles held veto power so only the occasional unanimous law could ever pass. Reminds me entirely too much of today's Washington where compromise is as rarely seen as that meat in the peasant's hovel!
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TasunkaWitko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 02 November 2017 at 08:38
I remember that well; it was called "The Golden Freedom" or liberum veto; unfortunately, it negated a lot of good work that the Sejm would accomplish, then and in the future, and set Poland up for unimaginable heartache as the centuries passed.

As far as the cuts of meat go, my best guess is that the "large roasts" were the fresh, uncured hams, while the other cuts that were pounded flat and rolled must have been loins. It seems to me that each loin was butterflied, pounded, stuffed and tied. I'm not 100% certain of these guesses, but that makes sense, to me.

Michener notes that the large pieces of fat were trimmed and saved for larding; however, I am guessing that in Zofia's kitchen, there also must have been copious amounts of other trimmings and bones resulting from the preparation of these dishes. Were these conserved for stock or a sauce, perhaps? Or were they dispersed to the kitchen staff; an unexpected and happy windfall for their own consumption? I do not know, but I would guess the former, as there must have been a constant supply of leftovers for the kitchen staff to enjoy, as well as the odd morsel here and there for surreptitious sampling.

The French manner of the cooking of the large roasts reflects a cosmopolitan flair, and I would be very interested in trying this as I happen to have at least one fresh ham. Likewise, the intense, loving Polish patriotism is represented well where the treatment of the rolled loin is concerned, and I have seen some Polish recipes that were on the same theme. I imagine that this would be excellent to duplicate, as well; and I just happen to have at least one nice loin that would fit the bill....

I myself intend to try both of these dishes, and I think the challenge of re-creating these recipes would be fun. When it comes to seasoning, I am guessing that salt and pepper were a given - and not worth mentioning - but my suspicion is that it shouldn't be too hard to use Michener's account in order come up with something very plausible. I might allow myself one deviation, however: no one in our family is fond of caraway, so I might stud the roasts with cloves, instead. Then again, if I want to call myself a food historian, perhaps I should use the caraway, after all?

Is anyone else game to try this?
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TasunkaWitko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 November 2017 at 09:38
Well - moving along, let us see what transpired at the home of the petty knight, Lukasz:

Quote [Lukasz's] wife, Danusia, had begun to make meat pierogi from the forequarters of the hogs that Cyprjan had given her, and everyone crowded into the kitchen to watch the final preparation of this admirable dish.

“We find ourselves with meat only rarely,” Danusia confessed, “so when we get some I chop it fine.” She showed them how with great deftness she sliced the cooked pork, mixing it with spices and shreds of cabbage.

She liked, she explained, to make four different kinds of pierogi at once, “so as to conserve what meat we have,” and she displayed the three other fillings: stewed cabbage, roasted kasha with plenty of onion, and the favorite of everyone, extremely acid sauerkraut with mushrooms.

When the four fillings were lined up, she rolled out her dough while Zofia helped, for the Mniszech woman loved such impromptu experiments in the kitchen; it was she who put the salted water on to boil and looked for the two cutters that were so important in the making of this delicacy. She could not find them, and the clutter she made irritated Danusia, who shouted: “Everybody out of here! I’m busy!” But no one left, for Chancellor Ossolinski said: “I want my son to see how this is done.”

With the dough flat upon the board and not too thick, Danusia produced from a hidden corner what might be called the jewels of her kitchen, the two pierogi cutters. One was a small circle about four fingers in diameter, and with this she cut out rounds of thin dough, one after another, and as soon as they stood clear upon the board, Zofia and Barbara spooned little mounds of filling in the middle of each round, and then Danusia applied her second instrument, a semicircle of iron whose edge had been curiously cut. It had a heavy wooden handle, and as soon as one of the rounds of dough was properly filled, she deftly folded it in half, pressing the half-moon edges together and crimping them with the tool, so that they formed beautiful puffed-up semicircles of delicious food.

Now the miracle happened. The pierogi at this point were a brownish color of no great appeal, but once they were thrown into the boiling water, the dough was transformed into a lovely translucent covering that revealed the contents inside. “Better yet!” Lukasz cried as he heated fat in a skillet. “When some of them are fried, they’re doubly delicious.”

So Lukasz of Bukowo, a petty knight with four horses of his own and a ruined castle, fried pierogi for the chancellor of the nation, who could not decide whether he liked the boiled ones better than the fried, or the pork ones better than the cabbage. But finally all agreed that fried or boiled, the pierogi that contained the bitter sauerkraut and the delicate mushrooms were the best.


I've made pierogi before, and it can be a daunting task! This passage gives me a few ideas to try, the next time I make them.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TasunkaWitko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 09 November 2017 at 13:09
As mentioned above, I've made pierogi before, and enjoyed them very much. The ones I made were filled with mashed potato and cheese, and were very good. The recipe was am excellent one, coming from MeatHunter's wife, who is half-Russian and half-Polish:

http://foodsoftheworld.activeboards.net/potatoandcheesefilled-pierogies_topic1946.html

Looking at the descriptions above, it seems to me that the basic concept is similar. I also like the description of the pierogi cutter and press; these, in modern form, are available at places such as Amazon. They range from very inexpensive:

http://a.co/a53Th0Y

To more elaborate (yet essentially the same):

http://a.co/3hgobvW

Worthy of note is that the modern tools combine the function of cutter and crimper.

The sauerkraut and mushroom pierogi, along with the ones using pork spices and cabbage, are ones that I would really like to try. I'd probably use the recipe for the dough that was shared in MeatHunter's wife (link above).

The excerpt mentions that the pork is cooked before being chopped; I am guessing that the forequarters are de-boned and the meat trimmed and cut to manageable pieces, which are then simmered until it falls off the bone, but do not know for sure. If so, the stock and small trimmings would almost certainly be reduced and seasoned, then utilized for other purposes. The trimmed fat, almost certainly, would be rendered to lard.

For seasoning the pierogi, I would improvise as far as the spices go: salt, pepper, marjoram...maybe a couple of others, but I would do my best to keep from over-doing it.

Boiled, then tossed in the onion/butter mixture used by MeatHunter's wife, then fried, would be my preference.

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote HistoricFoodie Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11 November 2017 at 02:43
One of the first things to strike me was mention of the cutter/crimper.  The Russian--Polish--Lithuanian housewives I knew, growing up, did it all by hand.  They cut the rounds with a drinking glass, and crimped them with a fork.

A quick search reveals about a dozen different pierogi molds/cutters.  Who'd a thunk it?

My problem, as I've noted in the past, is that I'm dough-rolling challenged.  So will never master pie-making.  At least with dumplings of this kind I can use my pasta roller.

As to fillings, the sauerkraut/mushroom is a new one to me.  In the past I've had them stuffed with meats, kasha, potatoes, and cabbage; alone or in combination. 
But we hae meat and we can eat
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote HistoricFoodie Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11 November 2017 at 02:49
If anyone is going to try some of these dishes, a note on the word "kasha" is perhaps in order.

Technically, kasha is roasted buckwheat groats.  My Mom always made it by mixing the groats with a beaten egg, then dry roasting in a skillet until the egg was absorbed, and the groats browned. Basic cooking was done with water. 

Michener seems to be using "kasha" to describe both the raw groats and the roasted ones. So it's something to be aware of when experimenting with these dishes. 
But we hae meat and we can eat
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Margi Cintrano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11 November 2017 at 10:20

Fascinating post,  Brook ..

The last book I had read by the author was "Iberia", which was 21 years ago when I relocated to Spain from  Italy where I lived for  5 years ..  

I shall take a look in the Library .. If not, I shall call my local English Bookstore, and order it ..

Thank you for your amazing book review ..  and input and feedback .. 

Exemplary penning as always. 
 
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote HistoricFoodie Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 11 November 2017 at 20:11
Appreciate the thought, Margi. But it's misdirected. This actually is Ron's thread; I merely made a few comments on his post.

Credit where credit is due, n'est ce pas!
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Margi Cintrano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 12 November 2017 at 03:17
My apologies  Ron.  

I made a gaff and thought it was  Brook´s Post ..  

None the less,  the post merits excellence ..

Have a lovely day ..     
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TasunkaWitko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 13 November 2017 at 08:50
Good morning, Brook and MArgi, and thanks for offering some thoughts on this.

Margi - no worries! I am glad that you enjoyed reading. The book is very much worth having, as an introduction to a unique and important part of European history. The culinary references are my favourite part; however, the chapter on Poland during World War 2 is also very riveting.

Brook - When I made my pierogi, I did use a pasta roller. For cutting, I used a drinking glass with a mouth approximately 4 inches wide, then used a fork to crimp them. This was easy to do, and I am not sure if a cutter/crimper tool would have been any more efficient; however, I am guessing that for such a treasured national dish, such implements would become part of the culture in the middle and upper classes?

As to the first installment (the magnate), any thoughts on the cuts or the recipe?
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TasunkaWitko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 28 November 2017 at 11:12
We have seen how the magnate's wife (Zofia) and the squire's wife (Danusia) put their pork to work; but what about the peasant's wife? In some ways, her task is greatest of all, for she must take cuts that are of the lowest and most humble origin and stretch those cuts as far as humanly possible, using a frugality and creativity that is no longer imaginable in this day and age, at least in some places.

Quote When Jan of the Beech Trees brought the package of haslet home to his wife, Anulka, and she turned back the wrapping and saw that she was to have real meat, and in such unbelievable quantity, she started to cry, for it had been more than a year since she and her husband had eaten anything but cabbage and kasha and beets, with now and then a slab of fat containing no meat whatever, and she could scarcely credit the good luck that had befallen her family.

There it was, in some ways the best part of the hog: the liver, the kidneys, the feet, the heart, the tongue, the brains, the meat still on the head and neck, the sweetbreads—the whole inside and history of the hog, meat so precious that it must be treated with reverence. For a moment she had a fright: “They didn’t give us the intestines!” But at the bottom of the package Jan found the long strings of guts, and now she was ready.

First she carefully examined the treasure for whatever choice pieces of meat could be cut, and set them aside, catching every precious drop of blood. She then singed the skin, and carefully cut away the fat that remained close to it. Next she went to the river, where she washed the intestines and singed portions until they gleamed.

She now had three pots boiling, each at its appropriate speed, and had she owned a fourth, she would have kept it busy boiling the kasha. From the fields she gathered the herbs she would need, and after a long day’s work she was ready to begin the serious business of making her kielbasa. She carefully seasoned whatever choice meat she had with generous amounts of garlic, pepper, herbs and spices. Then, having tied one end of an intestine with a thread, she took a wooden spoon and carefully fed her mixture into the free opening, pressing it along with her fingers but taking great care never to compress the mixture too tightly lest it burst the skin at later cooking. The whole was then carefully tied into links, which Jan hung in the chimney for smoking.

After the kielbasa was properly cured, Anulka would apportion it sparingly, a little piece here, another when the children were good. The fatback was salted and stored in a wooden container. It would be used in the preparation of almost any meal, or eaten with bread to provide nourishment during the long winter months. The blood was mixed with the kasha, spices and onions, spooned carefully into the larger intestines, baked at mealtime, and was called kiszka. The knuckles were cooked with spices and other remaining bones, until even the most minute shred of meat had been loosened, and this became a tangy gelatinous delicacy. Nothing was wasted.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Margi Cintrano Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29 November 2017 at 04:09
Ron,

Firstly thank you for the extraordinarily well written background ..  Fascinating read ..

Pierogi, a pasta roller is an excellent idea ..  Similiar to a thick ravioli type dumpling ..   and crimping edges to hold the ingredient stuffing ..  

Yes, the whole hog or pig or any other animal were  used alot more in the days of yester year .. And in rural regions these are still used through out Europe ..  Very common in Iberia, Italia and  France too.  

Kielbasa smoked home made sausage must be amazing ..  

Good luck with this Project ..    
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote TasunkaWitko Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 06 December 2017 at 09:35
Reading all of this has definitely inspired me to try a few things, Margi; I definitely would like to prepare some of the foods mentioned in the magnate's portion of the story. I have at least one nice, Montana-raised pork loin in the freezer...maybe two. I also have a fresh, uncured ham - on the leg bone - that I intended to use for some sort of charcuterie project. I might instead use it for this.

With that, I'll add this coda to the narrative:

Quote In this prudent way every portion of the Castle Gorka hogs was utilized: the good cuts for the banquet, the tougher ones in Pani Danusia’s pierogi, the haslet in Anulka’s kielbasa. This good husbandry was symbolic of the rational way in which Poland had organized itself in the year 1646, when magnates, gentry and peasants were about as happy as they had ever been.


I will post updates as I am able to (hopefully) try some of these ideas, and I would very much like to hear thoughts from anyone who has any feedback or discussion ideas. If anyone tries any of these, please do post about it!

Ron
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